Monday, August 24, 2020

Volumes Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Volumes - Lab Report Example Moreover, the information on the stature and the width of the slug formed article was gathered and organized. In the subsequent investigation, the information on the sphere’s mass was gathered as mass 1 to mass 5. The fourth exploratory that was required in the investigation was the measurement for the five circles which were taken as width 1 to breadth 6 We took the thickness of the mud as Mass per Unit of Volume. The equation that was utilized in ascertaining this was with a SI unit of . In the trial, the proliferation of mistakes was determined from the methodology of incomplete subsidiaries. The equation for this was The standard blunders for the analysis were exhibited by . The standard blunder was gotten through the calculation of standard deviation from the different estimation. We later determined the standard deviation with the assistance of a graphical investigation program. The standard deviation was signified as N is interpreted as meaning the measurement’s number of x. x and y are taken to speak to their mean qualities. The vulnerabilities at long last result were accounted for with one critical number. It was accepted that the last normal worth is likened to the quantity of decimal focuses found in the vulnerability. The hardware that were utilized in the investigation incorporate; a plastic pack, empty chamber, slug formed article, Vernier’s calipers, balance, and a lot of masses. In the main examination we decided the volumes and the standard mistake for the empty chamber, shot formed item, and the triangle crystal (Price, 889). The accompanying condition was utilized to ascertain the volume of the empty chamber The Vernier calipers was utilized to gauge the relevant element of the item. The component of the Vernier was 0.05mm. The five estimation of the gave object was estimated. Subsequent to taking the five estimation, the mean qualities for the measurements were additionally decided. The standard deviations for the measurements for the empty chambers was then decided. The

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Concocting a Divisive Theory Free Essays

Coming up with a Divisive Theory The exceptional recuperation of a mtDNA segment from the arm of the Feldhofer Cave Neandertal was welcomed with the excitement and truly, even with the ballyhoo it merited. 1 It was a really significant revelation, and from an examination lab that each piece late as a twelvemonth before had anticipated it should n’t be possible. The heroes of the hypothesis that Neandertal keeps an eye on are an alternate animal groups were past richness ( barely any others were cited on the issue ) . We will compose a custom paper test on Coming up with a Divisive Theory or on the other hand any comparative theme just for you Request Now Thus, in a crescendo of fervor, Stringer and McKie2 conveyed their putsch de gra?ce in a New York Times commentary talking the hugeness of the Neandertal mtDNA discoveries: The reasonings for the idea of race are significant. In the event that advanced humankind is comprised of individuals who are altogether ongoing successors of a couple of African trend-setters, it is each bitclear that Homosexual sapiens must be a startlingly homogeneous animal varieties. We only hold non had clasp to wander hereditarily in any significant mode. In any case, a few researchers and those with slender political dockets have put frontward explanations to draw out the idea that races exist with cardinal natural contrasts. Then again of coming up with dissentious speculations, we would be better off to recognize the significance of ongoing informations that will help us happen the properties that isolated Homo sapiens from other early universes like the Neanderthals. Is this more drama or is it everywhere? Have the antediluvian DNA surveies presented to us an existent revelation and finished the Neandertal dispute so thoroughly that the solitary holdouts should end creating their dissentious hypotheses since they can just vary on the off chance that they have a political docket about race? Tattersall3 trusts it is everywhere. He deciphers the mtDNA results as demoing that the Neandertals were a recognizable animal types for 600,000 mature ages. For this perusing, one must assume that the historical backdrop of the Neandertal mtDNA line of drop area is a populace history, that constantly roll uping freaks are the select reason for mtDNA improvement, and that the freak pace of mtDNA is known with adequate truth to day of the month the putative split. Faith in the Eve hypothesis of present day human beginnings is the greater part of import necessity for these premises since it attaches mtDNA history to populace history through the record that low mtDNA decent variety inworlds originates from an ongoing populace size tightening ( in this occurrence, another species ) . It is nothing unexpected that Eve theoreticians responded to the insight with bliss. It is non that I need to rain on anyone ‘s march, yet there are some irritable inside informations. Let ‘s articulation at what was truly done. Krings and coworkers1 detailed that the 379 base-pair segment of mtDNA found in the Feldhofer example has 27 contrasts from the notice human succession and, fundamentally, that 25 of these distinctions were at places that changed in at any rate one of their relative human examples of 2,051 people. At the point when the Neandertal arrangement was contrasted and 994 advanced human line of drops of known geographic start, the figure of contrasts was multiple occasions more noteworthy than the normal figure of contrasts between the universes. However, potentially the most amazing assurance was that few of the universes were found to contrast from one another more than the Neanderthal varies from certain universes. Heredities in the human example have somewhere in the range of 1 and 24 pairwise contrasts reflecting freaks, while the Neandertal varied from these universes by somewhere in the range of 22 and 36 freaks. Taking the distinction in ages into history, each piece great as the way that any particular mtDNA line from that clasp had just a little chance of winning until today, this type of change is not out of the ordinary, given that an old Neanderthal man is being contrasted and advanced universes. In such a looking at, the pairwise contrasts should ever be more prominent than they would be for the ascendants of the current universes in the investigation who were populating at a similar clasp as the Neandertal. This is on the grounds that the cutting edge homo mtDNA lines have had a more extended clasp to change. Regardless of whether the extent of variance is not out of the ordinary is an alternate request. The answer could rely upon the mtDNA freak rate. Here, unnecessarily, there have been astounding finds. Until late, the pace of change for human mtDNA was resolved phylogenetically. Dates for mtDNA coalescency were evaluated by looking at the maximal pairwise distinction among universes to the figure of contrasts partitioning human and chimpanzee groupings. Dates for human and chimpanzee divergency were so used to measure the pace of modification. The Neanderthal divergency day of the month assessed by Krings colleagues accept a freak rate at about the focal point of the But perhaps the most amazing assurance was that few of the universes were found to contrast from each othermore than the Neanderthal varies from certain universes. scope for phyletic discoveries: 0.01 to 0.2 stage destinations every million mature ages. In any case, truth be told, even the quickest of these rates might not be right. At the point when Czar Nicholas II and his family unit were exhumedin 1991, their assignments depended on fiting their mtDNA with that of different relatives of the Czar ‘s female parent. These investigations out of nowhere uncovered enormously more mutational modifications than the phyletic rates predicted.4 Subsequent calculations of freak rates between coevalss end up being drastically higher than had been expected from the more extended territory phyletic contemplations. In two diverse surveies, 100s of base support from the mtDNA control part ( more than in the Neandertal examination ) were sequenced and intergenerational freak paces of 1.2â€4.0 stages per myr were derived.5,6 The Eve hypothesis hypothesizes that an ongoing populace size tightening took topographic point at the clasp of mtDNA coalescency in universes. Be that as it may, if mtDNA freak rates are so every piece high as the intergenerational examinations show, the ‘‘Eve † of these surveies could great hold been a Biblical figure since she would hold lived simply around 6,500 mature ages back. Of class, a populace size tightening this ongoing is amazingly far-fetched on the grounds that ‘‘it stays bewildering how the known dispersion of human populaces and cistrons could hold emerged in the previous barely any thousand mature ages. †6 A substantially more likely record for now ‘s mitochondrial assorted variety is that there was no ongoing pop ulace tightening, yet that the mtDNA has constrained change due to decision. It is realized that the advancement of human mtDNA leaves from nonpartisanship. Decision can explain this and the restricted variance in human mtDNA by, for outline, since quite a while ago run foundation decision against to some degree destructive freaks, 7 or by scenes of directional decision, or, conceivably a particular sweep.8 Selection is an of import segment in mtDNA advancement in light of the fact that mtDNA does non recombine. In this way, decision against any part diminishes fluctuation in the full genome. 9 Even on a similar chromosome, nonrecombining parts have a lot of lower change than do recombining parts. One dissentious hypothesis is that decision has decreased mtDNA change in universes since the Neandertal lived. A finishing up thing is identified with the case of Krings and coworkers1 that the Neandertal is each piece identified with all life individuals. This adds to the perceptual experience that he was hereditarily segregated from them. Be that as it may, these journalists only introduced their comparings for wide mainland bunches ( Africans, Europeans, etc ) . A more appropriateanalysis is populational. A contrasting of the Feldhofer Neandertal and quality bank informations for 14 overall populaces brought about a mean pairwise distinction of 27.3, a similar normal contrast as in the overview by Krings and coworkers.1 But in this occasion, pairwise contrasts for explicit populaces could be straight inspected. These extended from 21.3 to 33.2: the littlest normal distinction was between the Neandertal and an example from Finland. One can imagine the dissentious hypothesis that may be prepared from these discoveries. There are others, generally geneticists, who other than have been caught up with preparing dissentious hypotheses about current human ancestry concur on one point: The Eve hypothesis is wrong.9,11 The activity they all reference is that a populace tightening horrible bounty to reset mtDNA change to zero would reset nuclear variance as great. Mitochondrial cistrons ought to recover their change and come back to balance significantly more quickly due to their higher freak rate and littler solid populace size. However, it is only the antonym. MtDNA is out of harmony and has little change, though all indifferent nuclear cistron frameworks concentrated so far are in balance and have more variation.7,8,12 This completely guidelines out an awful populace size tightening. One late bolstered hypothesis is that cutting edge universes are non another species yet plunge from a little innate gathering that lived in Africa for at any rate a million years.13 Others depend on examinations of the beta-globin genes14 and the Y chromosome,15 every one of which uncovers reason for significant hereditary trades both out of Africa and into Africa a lot sooner than the time of mtDNA coalescency, in any event, when the phyletic freak rate estimations are utilized. A populace size tightening would hold eradicated this more seasoned variance. In any case, if the Eve hypothesis is off base, there is no ground to limit records of the Neandertal mtDNA to past species divergency ; nil to disprove the conflict that the Neandertal mirrors a more noteworthy extent of mtDNA variance in the days of old than in the present ; and nil to detract from the feeling that mtDNA can vary significantly between areas of similar species. Hu

Friday, July 24, 2020

How to Do Quality Control before Shipping a Product

How to Do Quality Control before Shipping a Product Firms that are engaged in wholesale and retail business have a system in place governing their core processes. These are the sales transactions, warehousing and storage and, to get their offerings to the customers or end-users, they have a system on distribution.But logistics management is not focused only on getting the products out of the warehouse and shipping them to the buying customers.There is one aspect that deserves as much attention as â€" maybe even more than â€" transportation, shipping and handling, and that is quality control. © | Billion PhotosIn this article, I explore 1) quality control, 2) common types of quality checks, 3) what to check before shipping, 4) who will perform quality control, 5) quality control procedures, and 6) quality control tools.QUALITY CONTROLQuality control is defined as that facet of logistics management which pertains to sets of activities and techniques that are intended to assess the quality of products at various stages of the production process, all the way to the point right before distribution.The quality assessment will be based on predetermined requirements or standards previously set by the company. In the context of performing quality control before shipping, any product or unit of product that does not meet the minimum standards will have to be reworked, disposed, or dealt with accordingly by the company, instead of being shipped to the end user.Unfortunately, for many businesses, quality control is often overlooked, resulting to returns, damaged pr oducts, losses, and customer dissatisfaction. In the long run, all these bode ill for the business as a whole. Another sad reality is that businesses intentionally omit performing quality control or, even when they do, they do it haphazardly, in favor of speedy shipment.Quality control is performed at various stages. The more commonly performed checks include the following:Inspection upon receipt of raw materials and parts that will be placed into production, or of finished goods that will be for resale.Inspection prior to production. Normally, one unit or piece will be produced and, if it passes inspection, production run will proceed.Inspection in-process. The inspections will be made at intervals during the production process.Inspection after production. For many, this is considered as the final inspection and testing stage. A sample or 100% of the finished products will be inspected and tested.Inspection prior to shipping. The orders placed by a customer will be inspected and wi ll not be shipped until the final inspector has cleared them.For purposes of this particular discussion, we will be zeroing in on the last item, the inspection or quality control before shipping. This is also referred to as pre-shipment inspection, where the inspectors place themselves in the shoes of the consumers to see if the products meet general expectations.Importance of Quality Control Check before ShippingQuality control is meant to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the entire logistics system of a company by performing procedures to detect whether the products are free from defects or not. Those that have defects are returned for fixing to ensure that the customers are shielded from disappointment resulting from defective products.Here, let us try to break down the reasons why it is important to do quality control before a product is shipped.The final quality control check performed before shipping is primarily to ensure accuracy. This is especially true if the co mpany has a quality control system that is in force in practically every stage of the production and distribution process. However, if that is not the case, there is nothing wrong with also performing a check against product defects prior to shipping.It reduces the costs associated with shipping errors as well as the expenses that will be shouldered by both the customer and the company when processing any returns due to defective or inaccurately delivered products.Ensuring that the products are accurate and of good quality will help ensure that your brand, company name and reputation will be protected. Many companies have suffered due to defective merchandise, inaccurate orders, and even delayed shipments.Ensuring that the right products are being delivered, and that the quality passes the standards will eliminate delays in shipments.Dealing with customer complaints takes up a lot of a company’s resources. Its also tedious for the employees. Damage control is not something that co mpanies would like to deal with constantly, even if they have a fairly strong customer service system in place. The lesser complaints received from customers due to defective and subpar products, the better it will be for the morale of the employees of a company.Performing quality checks in ALL stages â€" not just pre-shipment â€" will help the company in monitoring its products and processes and come up with important decisions that will improve their current system. In a way, it is one way to gather data to improve efficiency. Being able to identify problems and shortcomings will enable them to correct these errors and respond accordingly.Ensuring quality prior to shipping is a way to establish a good relationship with your market. Consider this: businesses will succeed if they keep their pulse on their market and maintain an awareness of their customers’ needs and preferences. It is tantamount to “putting themselves in the shoes of their customers”. Quality control inspecti ons performed before the product is shipped is the final activity that will be performed, and it represents the buying experience of the customer.Quality control adds value to a company’s products. Often, companies that have maintained high-quality control standards and ensure that they are followed to the letter eventually use it as a justification to raise their prices.In a small way, effective quality control before shipping will help reduce marketing costs over time. This is because the buyers will be less likely to find problems in the delivered goods hence they will be more likely to order from the same company the next time they need the same products. However, if the product comes with a problem that justifies a return, the likelihood of the customer making another purchase from the same company is significantly reduced.Ultimately, performing quality control before shipping a product â€" and in any other stage of the business process even prior to shipping and distribution â€" will help in lowering costs and risks of losses, cutting down lead times, and facilitating the timely delivery of products to the recipients.COMMON TYPES OF QUALITY CHECKSThe final inspection is performed when all of the products ordered have been produced and around 75% to 80% have already been packed for shipment. The following methods are often seen applied by various companies before their products are shipped out.The check is performed within the factory (or the company’s premises) by external inspectors or third party quality control agencies. Often, the inspectors perform random sampling, checking only several samples at random, before handing out their conclusion regarding the quality of the products. This way of randomly inspecting the products is the most commonly used method, making it a standard way of checking quality of products before shipping. Its effective because it saves time and still has a high chance of identifying any issues present in the batches.The f inal inspection is performed on 100% of the products or on a certain percentage of randomly selected units at a “platform”. The most common practice is for the supplier company or seller to transport the orders to a forwarding warehouse (the “platform”), where the external inspector will perform quality control check. In case the products do not pass, they will have to be transported back to the factory instead of being shipped to customers. This method is ideal for large purchased volumes. However, it is often seen by many companies as impractical because of the costs of having to transport the units from the factory to the platform (and vice versa, in case rework is required).Inspection is performed to 100% of finished products on a piece by piece manner. The final check is actually part of the production process, as the last stage. It is important, however, that the inspectors or the persons performing the quality control checks are independent of the company, meaning the y are not employees of the company. This will go a long way in ensuring that they give a transparent remark. Alternatively, each inspector or group of inspectors can handle specific batches and their details captured so that any issues that arise after shipping can be traced back to a specific inspector.Quality control check is done by internal inspectors, or inspectors that are employees of the company, and have been trained to perform these checks. Normally, they also play an important role in the internal audit system of the company. This option is found to be cheaper by companies, since having an in-house inspector costs less than paying external inspectors to do the job. However, its important to ensure that the inspectors are sufficiently trained to look for all the common trouble points in the products.WHAT TO CHECK BEFORE SHIPPINGWhat are the specific things or aspects that must be inspected or checked before a product is sent for shipping?Product safety. There are safety an d health standards that must be complied with. Inspectors will focus on whether the products are safe for use or consumption.Compliance with the company’s own specific requirements, standards set by the industry the business is in, and specific regulations formulated by the government.Quantity. The number of items packed for shipment must coincide with the number of units ordered by customers.Product specifications. This entails looking into the function, workmanship, color, size, and other technical specifications of the product.Packing. Are the orders packed securely and properly? During shipping, it is possible that there could be careless handling by the shipper. Therefore, make sure that the items are packed appropriately, depending on the nature of the product, to minimize the risks of them being damaged while in transit.WHO WILL PERFORM QUALITY CONTROL BEFORE SHIPPINGWe have briefly mentioned them earlier in the discussion, but inspectors or personnel tasked to perform qual ity control do not necessarily have to be employees of the company.In-house inspectors. These are individuals that are included in the company’s payroll, and have been specifically trained to conduct quality control checks.Free-market quality control companies. These are privately owned and third-party quality assurance firms or agencies that offer quality control services. They are in the business of performing quality control checks for other businesses. An example is Intertek, which provides “quality and safety services to businesses”, by ensuring that the products meet “quality, health, environmental, safety and social accountability standards”.Freelance quality engineers. These are independent or individual contractors that offer their quality control services. In some areas, they require certifications in order to be recognized and allowed to provide services as quality engineers.State-owned inspection companies. These are companies that are fully or partly owned by the state. They are not as numerous as free-market quality control companies, however.QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURESCompanies should have their own manual of quality control procedures to guide the inspectors. This is true even if the company hires the services of an external inspector. Sure, the external inspector is likely to have his own inspection or quality control system in place, and quality assurance agencies and inspectors use industry standard processes in their inspection. However, having a manual will still be helpful in order for him to know the points to watch out for during the inspection. The manual will contain the quality policy of the company and an overview of the processes and the quality system in place.The procedures could vary depending on the volume of the products.100% vs. a sample. The inspector checks ALL the items to be shipped, or only a certain percentage of the whole. Large volumes would normally entail only having a certain sample size inspected.Piece by piece or random selection. All the items are inspected one by one, or the inspector picks several items at random for checking. Random selection is often used for large volumes of products up for pre-shipment inspection.The quality control procedures will vary depending on the nature or type of product. There are certain products that require testing while others only require ocular inspection.Of course, the basic procedures include some, or all, of the following:Manual counting of quantity;Reconciling product quantity and other quantitative details to files on record (actual vs. what is written on documents such as purchase orders and invoices);Product testing, if required;Ocular inspection of the packaging and the labeling;Checking to ensure that the weight of the product coincides with the weight indicated on the label where applicable.QUALITY CONTROL TOOLSDocumentation is also required whenever quality control checks are performed. This will ensure that records can be kept for future reference. The most commonly used quality control tools include the following:Questionnaires: One advantage of questionnaires is simplicity and how it can be easily used and understood by many. Its also flexible and can be used in a wide range of settings.Checklist Worksheets: Just like questionnaires, this contains items that have to only be checked, depending on the findings of the inspection performed. More often than not, they come with questions answerable by “YES”, “NO”, and “PARTIALLY”.Quality Control Sheet: This is especially useful when checking products that have a lot of technical specifications, such as food, spare parts, and even fabric. Quality control sheets are ideally concise and put emphasis on specific areas only.Quality control plays a big role in ensuring that a companys operations are not crippled by problems in the quality of the products. Without a proper quality control system, its very easy to find that the company ends up with lots of re turns that will need many man hours to correct. Its, therefore, easier and relatively cheaper to have a number of quality control points, the most important one being just before shipment.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Lesson planning Free Essay Example, 1500 words

The order of the lesson plan is systematic in ensuring the learners get maximum knowledge. The order is from simple English practices to the sophisticated practices of reading and analyzing vocabularies about family and friends. The first two weeks will see the tutor give the students learning materials such as flash cards. The flashcards that are available are in different languages. It is, therefore, suitable for the whole class who are fluent in various languages. The beginners’ stage of learning the English language has simple words such as cup, spoon, plate. The flashcards that I will give my students will have family and friends vocabulary in their language on one side and English interpretation on the other side of the card (Kerns and Mendelson 2004). Formation of English sentences and reading out loud in class are a few things I have a great experience in doing. There are however a few challenges in the execution of all the lesson plans. Examples of the challenges include getting books for the students since the institution does not have enough books about the vocabulary in question. We will write a custom essay sample on Lesson planning or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now Another problem involves convincing the students to stand in front of the class and express themselves (Kerns and Mendelson 2004). Over the years of my experience, I have realized that many students do not have confidence when it comes to expressing themselves in a new language. The students are embarrassed they might mess up, or they may not come up with correct sentence structures. It is easy to overcome the above challenges. The set book is on the internet at a small fee and then printed in ten copies for the students. It is cheaper to take this move instead of ordering other sets of the set book. There is also the option of reading the set book in soft cover. The move is however challenging as most of the students find difficulty in reading soft copy documents. A tutors encouragement can eliminate shyness of students. The tutor should not correct the student in front of his/her colleagues when they make a mistake (Kerns and Mendelson 2004). Ther e are however circumstances that do not allow a tutor to ignore the error. In such a circumstance, it is advisable for the teacher to correct the student in a polite way. Each and every activity is important for the learners and the aim of learning the process. There are students who are learning for the sole purpose of being able to interact with their peers. These students most valuable lessons should include verbal communication in English.

Thursday, May 7, 2020

The Organic Foods Selection Between Ten Projects - 1702 Words

INTRODUCTION This case-study exanimate the Organic Foods selection between ten projects, totaled â‚ ¬208 million. However, evidence suggest that the Organic sales have been static since 1990, the managers needed to introduce more new products to expand the market presence and boost the company sales. Although the Organic Food board of directors limited the capital budget from â‚ ¬ 80 million. The challenge of this case is the selection and allocation of the â€Å"scares† funds among those compelling projects. This paper will be divided in three section. The first section will be discussed about the possible threat of the hostile takeover. The second part will be discussed about the financial analysis of the projects the potential problems comes with it and it will consider the division of the projects in the aggregate project plan. Finally, the third part will provide recommendations of the projects to select to the Board of Directors, followed by some comments and implications in the conclusion section. HOSTILE TAKEOVER The potential threat of hostile takeover and the importance of 1993 for Organic Foods A hostile takeover is a situation in purchase and sale transaction which take place against the will of the board of directors of a purchased company (Puziak and Martyniuk, 2012). In Organic Foods, the sales have been static since 1990, the management attribute this to the low population growth in northern Europe and market saturation in other areas.Show MoreRelatedTRUST AND INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS AND IDENTIFYING ISSUES Essay examples1466 Words   |  6 Pagestheir trustworthiness. Team project performance is directly impacted by team member’s interpersonal relationships. Collaboration and project success are effected by working relationships between team members which are believed to be trust based. 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Local stores domesticallyRead MoreGenetically Modified Organisms Or Gmos2407 Words   |  10 PagesFor as long as there has been life, the natural process of breeding has always taken place between two similar species. In this way, only dominant genes designed to help a specific lifeform survive its environment have been passed on within the genepool in a logical way. As science has delved deeper into the realm of DNA and tampered with the natural order of genetics, we attempt to synthesize new organism that would never have occurred in nature. A consequence of this is Genetically Modified OrganismsRead Mo reAgriculture and Technology6502 Words   |  27 Pages iii) MRINAL JANA ( ) School: Kendriya Vidyalaya, IIT Kharagpur - Thank you - AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY Agriculture is the production of food and goods through farming. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Informed Consent Free Essays

Ethics Paper Informed Consent in Industrial/Psychological Research July 31, 2011 Foundations of Industrial/Organizational Psychology Abstract There are certain conditions where reasonable exceptions that APA ethical standards and federal guidelines insure in research that human participation will be ethical due to informed consent. In federal guidelines the preferred mechanism is informed consent in order to protect the human participants (APA, 1992). Informed Consent Informed consent is when an individual gives permission to participate in future events after receiving instruction about the events they may wish to be a part of. We will write a custom essay sample on Informed Consent or any similar topic only for you Order Now Informed consent is put in place to prevent lawsuits. Obtaining consent is similar in all circumstances (Jones, 2011). In order to be considered valid, informed consent must be given voluntarily from a participant that is competent (Cherry, 2011). When is Informed Consent Required? In order to arrive at a better understanding of the subject matter, research is necessary. When conducting research and using human participants, the need to know whether informed consent is necessary is vital. To err on the side of safety, always obtain informed consent in any research situation if you have any doubts as to the necessity (Cherry, 2011). Require and acquire informed consent if: 1). Participants answer questions in their native language. Determine what data is needed, true/false or multiple choice questions, or surveys and whether or not this material can provide needed data. 2). When using a small group of participants, but determine ahead of time how many participants you will need. 3). When using identifying information or questions answered regarding sensitive or controversial language from your participants, also make the decision whether you can allow the participants to remain anonymous (Cherry, 2011). Exceptions to Informed Consent There are very limited conditions where both the APA and federal guidelines allow exceptions to informed consent. The APA is less explicit to the necessary conditions for exceptions, where the federal guidelines are very explicit. Examples are as follows: There has to be minimal risk involved in the research, the welfare of the participants’ rights are not affected by either altering or waiving informed consent, without the waiver, the research cannot be practically carried out, or having participated, upon completion of the research, the participants can be informed. These are the only exceptions the federal guidelines allow to informed consent (45 CFR Part 46, 1991). In I/O Psychology, field studies allow for exceptions to informed consent that sometimes meet these conditions. On occasion, there is data collection that serves both science and practice that is collected from employees. An example would be recording a telephone conversation at the local phone company where customer service employees and customers are monitored for coaching related to employee relations and/or performance. The customer and employee are informed of the conversation being recorded. If the data was going to be used in a study such as persuasion or negotiation, by the researcher, or as a study, both the customer and the employee would have to be informed of the purpose of the research prior to the recording and a consent needed to participate or the need of an acceptable exception to informed consent would apply (Ilgen Bell, 2001). There have been a number of conditions that continue to cause or raise concern regarding the researchers’ ability to rationalize exceptions to informed consent, this being in spite of I/O Psychological research being carried out in ways that protect the research participants’ well-being without the use of informed consent, one being a shift in the oversight of the ethical treatment of research participants. Once upon a time, (IRBs) or Institutional Review Boards were established at organizations and were involved in the conduct and research protocols, for human participant treatment. IRB members were gathered from outside and inside the organization to represent the expectations and values of communities. Board members values of the treatment of human participants in research and also by the ethical standards that were affiliated by the professional associations of the ethical standards (IRB, 1997). Control over what is and what is not reasonable treatment of human participants, today, still exists in IRBs and the ethical standards of scientific associations, such as the APA. An example is authors submitting their work to psychological journals such as Psychological Science, are instructed to inform the public that, â€Å"Investigations on human participants must include a statement indicating that informed consent was obtained†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Psychological Science, 1999). Informed consent is required; there is no option for exceptions (APA, 1992). Conclusion When obtained from the participant or participants’ legally authorized representative, documented in a consistent manner with the Health and Human Services protection of human participants regulations, and with applicable laws of the jurisdiction in which the research is conducted, informed consent is considered legally effective. In other words, the regulations ensure that an investigator should seek consent only under circumstances that provide the participant or a representative that is legally authorized the sufficient opportunity to consider if they are willing to participate and minimizes the possibility of undue influence or coercion. The information should be presented in a manner that is understandable to the participant or legal representative. Exculpatory language is not to be included whether written or oral with informed consent requirements in the regulations and are not intended to override any applicable local, state, or federal laws that require additional information to be legally effective for consent (45 CFR 46. 116(e), 1991). References American Psychological Association. Committee for the Protection of Human Participants in Research. 1992). Ethical Principles. American Psychologist, 47. Cherry, K. (2011). What is Informed Consent? Retrieved from http://psychology. about. com/od/iindex/g/def_informedcon. htm on July 31, 2011. Federal Register. (1991). Protection of human subjects: Title 45, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 46, Vol. 56 Number 28003. June 18. Federal Register (1997). Protection of human subjects: Suggested revisions to the Institutional Review Board (IRB) expedited review list. Vol. 62. Number 217. 60607, November 10, pp. 1-8 Ilgen, D. R. Bell, B. S. (2001). Conducting Industrial and Organizational Psychological Research: Institutional Review of Research in Work Organizations. Ethics and Behavior, 11, 395-412. Jones, A. (2011). How to obtain consent. Retrieved from www. ehow. com/how_7789509_obtain_informed-consent. html on July 31, 2011. Psychological Sciences. (1999). Information for contributors, 10, inside back cover of each issue. How to cite Informed Consent, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

The Crucible by Arthur Miller

Table of Contents Introduction What issues are being adressed How the issues are handled Conclusion Works Cited Introduction The crucible is a play written in the McCarthyism era by Arthur Miller. McCarthyism was a movement in the nineteen-fifties led by Senator Joe McCarthy in search for communists in the government of the United States. A crucible as defined is a vessel whereby heating and melting of metal using high temperatures take place for sole purposes of casting.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Crucible by Arthur Miller specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Metaphorically, a crucible can also refer to an era in history where the society seems to be melted down and remolded into a new castby the forces of great cultural, social, and political changes. The same word has remarkable similarities with crucifixion, which is the major intention of Miller by choosing it to be the title of his play. The plays interweaves Christ’s crucifixion with the picture of a bubbling crucible in it a man and a society: the predicament of arriving to the right choice of morality and the inevitability of attaining redemption through sacrifice. These two themes, certainly, occur in the amplified struggle between good and evil. The crucible puts to lime light countless enduring issue that affects our society at large. These issues include honor and integrity, power issues and its abounding corruption, the characteristics of excellence and wickedness, and the likelihood to evade all sorts of problems by creation of scapegoats. This paper aims at showing how the crucible exposes the above named issues in a dramatic fashion. What issues are being adressed The issues of honor and integrity are depicted very well in the Crucible. Conscience is an inward sense of decency which propels most people towards what we term as being right(Miller 1). Nevertheless, in moment of public discord, we end up give ou r consciousness the rear seat which is naturally expected of us. For one to stand up for the right thing even in the most challenging opposition, it asks for a strong will of conscience(Miller 2). Although taking such an action is perceived as noble and honorable in retrospection, it is rarely received well by the majority in real and actual events. Miller handles the issue of integrity and honor by bring the character of proctor. How the issues are handled The reason as to why proctor was hanged, it was because he chose to uphold his integrity at the end. If proctor had chosen to compromise his integrity by confessing thus lying, he would not have been blamed by the audience. Proctor realized that by compromising he would betray his close friends therefore he chose to sacrifice his life for his conscience.Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More By following his conscience, and sacrific ing his life, proctor became a real martyr before the audience eyes (Miller 3). This trend repeats itself even in our day to day life. We are very quick at applauding those who chose to uphold their integrity but we do not have enough strength of moral fiber to do so. The death of proctor turns out to be a moral exclamation point, and the modern audiences would be affected profoundly(Archer 5). A large part of the play is dominated by the issues of power. Domineering criminals in the play have power possession and this prompt Miller to sound a warning on the corrupting qualities behind power. This is depicted clearly when Abigail and the other group of girls after realizing that they posses great power, they seek to use it for their own benefits. Danforth possessesthe greatest power in the play, and he had the capacity to declare the proceedings at any one given time for the irrationality they were in (Archer 7). However, even at the final point when his actions were plainly and cle arly not upright he preferred to proceed with his judgment. The crucible playdisplayed how excess power is harmful and dangerous, since the temptation is ready waiting to be abused. The individuals in power in Salem, when scrutinized under theocratic government justification are found to absolutely abuse power, and in process destroying innocent people. This gives a clear illustration of how the law is not always correct, and if that is the case, we are supposed to stand up to it(Bly 2). Proctor did exactly that by challenging the court. Power does not usually land on the principled or the prudent, but rather in the control of self centered individuals. Today In our very democratic governments, the authorities are responsible to the entire society for the things they decide to do, and therefore, are under control to a given degree. From the play, we can see clearly that a position assuming excess power and having no oneto be responsible to tends to be corrupted by that power. It has always been noted that,numerous societies come up with some sort of scapegoat for any atrocity that they face. At that particular time,Salem was notan exception (Bly 5). At that period, the population was becoming uncomfortable with the extreme measures taken by the government to ascertain that they never deviated, and this caused general crisis. Danforth desire to control this crisis could have led him to execute the condemned ‘witches’ to a point far beyond any comprehension of therational mind would know that the actions were not right(Miller 2).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Crucible by Arthur Miller specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Danforth might have desired to show the population how rebels like Proctor were punished and the execution through hangings could have acted as warning to anyone planning to carry out a social upheaval. As a matter of fact, the devil has always served as a ver y easy scapegoat. Thebehavior to always find a scapegoats goes on even today, and there is always someone who takes the blame on our behalf. Conclusion Much had to be offered to the audience by the play Crucible in 1996. The issues addressed by the play are very much similar to the issues facing our modern world. There is much the modern audience canidentify with the issue of corruption and power, integrity and honor,the issue of rule governing the society and the methods used to condemn those people who deviate from the rulestogether with our burning desires to blame others by creating a scapegoat. Important issues to the Americans were addressed by the Crucible. The crucible exposed what the world in general is facing in real sense, people in power are manipulating powers bestowed on them to control other people and impose ideologies which are not sensible. Hunger for power and control have led to people committing crimes against humanity. Also, the inability of people to withhold their integrity has caused innocent people to suffer in the place of those guilty for committing an atrocity. People in power hide under the shadow of authority to oppress the weak and vulnerable. The crucible has played a very important role in addressing what is actually happening in the world. Works Cited Archer. The Crucible: Theme. Web. Bly, William.Arthur Miller’s The Crucible. USA: Barron’s Educational Series, 1984.   Bradford, Wade. The Crucible – A Challenging Masterpiece. 21 October 2011.Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Miller, Arthur. The Crucible. AC Black, 2010. This essay on The Crucible by Arthur Miller was written and submitted by user Jedidiah Rivas to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.