Friday, July 24, 2020

How to Do Quality Control before Shipping a Product

How to Do Quality Control before Shipping a Product Firms that are engaged in wholesale and retail business have a system in place governing their core processes. These are the sales transactions, warehousing and storage and, to get their offerings to the customers or end-users, they have a system on distribution.But logistics management is not focused only on getting the products out of the warehouse and shipping them to the buying customers.There is one aspect that deserves as much attention as â€" maybe even more than â€" transportation, shipping and handling, and that is quality control. © | Billion PhotosIn this article, I explore 1) quality control, 2) common types of quality checks, 3) what to check before shipping, 4) who will perform quality control, 5) quality control procedures, and 6) quality control tools.QUALITY CONTROLQuality control is defined as that facet of logistics management which pertains to sets of activities and techniques that are intended to assess the quality of products at various stages of the production process, all the way to the point right before distribution.The quality assessment will be based on predetermined requirements or standards previously set by the company. In the context of performing quality control before shipping, any product or unit of product that does not meet the minimum standards will have to be reworked, disposed, or dealt with accordingly by the company, instead of being shipped to the end user.Unfortunately, for many businesses, quality control is often overlooked, resulting to returns, damaged pr oducts, losses, and customer dissatisfaction. In the long run, all these bode ill for the business as a whole. Another sad reality is that businesses intentionally omit performing quality control or, even when they do, they do it haphazardly, in favor of speedy shipment.Quality control is performed at various stages. The more commonly performed checks include the following:Inspection upon receipt of raw materials and parts that will be placed into production, or of finished goods that will be for resale.Inspection prior to production. Normally, one unit or piece will be produced and, if it passes inspection, production run will proceed.Inspection in-process. The inspections will be made at intervals during the production process.Inspection after production. For many, this is considered as the final inspection and testing stage. A sample or 100% of the finished products will be inspected and tested.Inspection prior to shipping. The orders placed by a customer will be inspected and wi ll not be shipped until the final inspector has cleared them.For purposes of this particular discussion, we will be zeroing in on the last item, the inspection or quality control before shipping. This is also referred to as pre-shipment inspection, where the inspectors place themselves in the shoes of the consumers to see if the products meet general expectations.Importance of Quality Control Check before ShippingQuality control is meant to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the entire logistics system of a company by performing procedures to detect whether the products are free from defects or not. Those that have defects are returned for fixing to ensure that the customers are shielded from disappointment resulting from defective products.Here, let us try to break down the reasons why it is important to do quality control before a product is shipped.The final quality control check performed before shipping is primarily to ensure accuracy. This is especially true if the co mpany has a quality control system that is in force in practically every stage of the production and distribution process. However, if that is not the case, there is nothing wrong with also performing a check against product defects prior to shipping.It reduces the costs associated with shipping errors as well as the expenses that will be shouldered by both the customer and the company when processing any returns due to defective or inaccurately delivered products.Ensuring that the products are accurate and of good quality will help ensure that your brand, company name and reputation will be protected. Many companies have suffered due to defective merchandise, inaccurate orders, and even delayed shipments.Ensuring that the right products are being delivered, and that the quality passes the standards will eliminate delays in shipments.Dealing with customer complaints takes up a lot of a company’s resources. Its also tedious for the employees. Damage control is not something that co mpanies would like to deal with constantly, even if they have a fairly strong customer service system in place. The lesser complaints received from customers due to defective and subpar products, the better it will be for the morale of the employees of a company.Performing quality checks in ALL stages â€" not just pre-shipment â€" will help the company in monitoring its products and processes and come up with important decisions that will improve their current system. In a way, it is one way to gather data to improve efficiency. Being able to identify problems and shortcomings will enable them to correct these errors and respond accordingly.Ensuring quality prior to shipping is a way to establish a good relationship with your market. Consider this: businesses will succeed if they keep their pulse on their market and maintain an awareness of their customers’ needs and preferences. It is tantamount to “putting themselves in the shoes of their customers”. Quality control inspecti ons performed before the product is shipped is the final activity that will be performed, and it represents the buying experience of the customer.Quality control adds value to a company’s products. Often, companies that have maintained high-quality control standards and ensure that they are followed to the letter eventually use it as a justification to raise their prices.In a small way, effective quality control before shipping will help reduce marketing costs over time. This is because the buyers will be less likely to find problems in the delivered goods hence they will be more likely to order from the same company the next time they need the same products. However, if the product comes with a problem that justifies a return, the likelihood of the customer making another purchase from the same company is significantly reduced.Ultimately, performing quality control before shipping a product â€" and in any other stage of the business process even prior to shipping and distribution â€" will help in lowering costs and risks of losses, cutting down lead times, and facilitating the timely delivery of products to the recipients.COMMON TYPES OF QUALITY CHECKSThe final inspection is performed when all of the products ordered have been produced and around 75% to 80% have already been packed for shipment. The following methods are often seen applied by various companies before their products are shipped out.The check is performed within the factory (or the company’s premises) by external inspectors or third party quality control agencies. Often, the inspectors perform random sampling, checking only several samples at random, before handing out their conclusion regarding the quality of the products. This way of randomly inspecting the products is the most commonly used method, making it a standard way of checking quality of products before shipping. Its effective because it saves time and still has a high chance of identifying any issues present in the batches.The f inal inspection is performed on 100% of the products or on a certain percentage of randomly selected units at a “platform”. The most common practice is for the supplier company or seller to transport the orders to a forwarding warehouse (the “platform”), where the external inspector will perform quality control check. In case the products do not pass, they will have to be transported back to the factory instead of being shipped to customers. This method is ideal for large purchased volumes. However, it is often seen by many companies as impractical because of the costs of having to transport the units from the factory to the platform (and vice versa, in case rework is required).Inspection is performed to 100% of finished products on a piece by piece manner. The final check is actually part of the production process, as the last stage. It is important, however, that the inspectors or the persons performing the quality control checks are independent of the company, meaning the y are not employees of the company. This will go a long way in ensuring that they give a transparent remark. Alternatively, each inspector or group of inspectors can handle specific batches and their details captured so that any issues that arise after shipping can be traced back to a specific inspector.Quality control check is done by internal inspectors, or inspectors that are employees of the company, and have been trained to perform these checks. Normally, they also play an important role in the internal audit system of the company. This option is found to be cheaper by companies, since having an in-house inspector costs less than paying external inspectors to do the job. However, its important to ensure that the inspectors are sufficiently trained to look for all the common trouble points in the products.WHAT TO CHECK BEFORE SHIPPINGWhat are the specific things or aspects that must be inspected or checked before a product is sent for shipping?Product safety. There are safety an d health standards that must be complied with. Inspectors will focus on whether the products are safe for use or consumption.Compliance with the company’s own specific requirements, standards set by the industry the business is in, and specific regulations formulated by the government.Quantity. The number of items packed for shipment must coincide with the number of units ordered by customers.Product specifications. This entails looking into the function, workmanship, color, size, and other technical specifications of the product.Packing. Are the orders packed securely and properly? During shipping, it is possible that there could be careless handling by the shipper. Therefore, make sure that the items are packed appropriately, depending on the nature of the product, to minimize the risks of them being damaged while in transit.WHO WILL PERFORM QUALITY CONTROL BEFORE SHIPPINGWe have briefly mentioned them earlier in the discussion, but inspectors or personnel tasked to perform qual ity control do not necessarily have to be employees of the company.In-house inspectors. These are individuals that are included in the company’s payroll, and have been specifically trained to conduct quality control checks.Free-market quality control companies. These are privately owned and third-party quality assurance firms or agencies that offer quality control services. They are in the business of performing quality control checks for other businesses. An example is Intertek, which provides “quality and safety services to businesses”, by ensuring that the products meet “quality, health, environmental, safety and social accountability standards”.Freelance quality engineers. These are independent or individual contractors that offer their quality control services. In some areas, they require certifications in order to be recognized and allowed to provide services as quality engineers.State-owned inspection companies. These are companies that are fully or partly owned by the state. They are not as numerous as free-market quality control companies, however.QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURESCompanies should have their own manual of quality control procedures to guide the inspectors. This is true even if the company hires the services of an external inspector. Sure, the external inspector is likely to have his own inspection or quality control system in place, and quality assurance agencies and inspectors use industry standard processes in their inspection. However, having a manual will still be helpful in order for him to know the points to watch out for during the inspection. The manual will contain the quality policy of the company and an overview of the processes and the quality system in place.The procedures could vary depending on the volume of the products.100% vs. a sample. The inspector checks ALL the items to be shipped, or only a certain percentage of the whole. Large volumes would normally entail only having a certain sample size inspected.Piece by piece or random selection. All the items are inspected one by one, or the inspector picks several items at random for checking. Random selection is often used for large volumes of products up for pre-shipment inspection.The quality control procedures will vary depending on the nature or type of product. There are certain products that require testing while others only require ocular inspection.Of course, the basic procedures include some, or all, of the following:Manual counting of quantity;Reconciling product quantity and other quantitative details to files on record (actual vs. what is written on documents such as purchase orders and invoices);Product testing, if required;Ocular inspection of the packaging and the labeling;Checking to ensure that the weight of the product coincides with the weight indicated on the label where applicable.QUALITY CONTROL TOOLSDocumentation is also required whenever quality control checks are performed. This will ensure that records can be kept for future reference. The most commonly used quality control tools include the following:Questionnaires: One advantage of questionnaires is simplicity and how it can be easily used and understood by many. Its also flexible and can be used in a wide range of settings.Checklist Worksheets: Just like questionnaires, this contains items that have to only be checked, depending on the findings of the inspection performed. More often than not, they come with questions answerable by “YES”, “NO”, and “PARTIALLY”.Quality Control Sheet: This is especially useful when checking products that have a lot of technical specifications, such as food, spare parts, and even fabric. Quality control sheets are ideally concise and put emphasis on specific areas only.Quality control plays a big role in ensuring that a companys operations are not crippled by problems in the quality of the products. Without a proper quality control system, its very easy to find that the company ends up with lots of re turns that will need many man hours to correct. Its, therefore, easier and relatively cheaper to have a number of quality control points, the most important one being just before shipment.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Lesson planning Free Essay Example, 1500 words

The order of the lesson plan is systematic in ensuring the learners get maximum knowledge. The order is from simple English practices to the sophisticated practices of reading and analyzing vocabularies about family and friends. The first two weeks will see the tutor give the students learning materials such as flash cards. The flashcards that are available are in different languages. It is, therefore, suitable for the whole class who are fluent in various languages. The beginners’ stage of learning the English language has simple words such as cup, spoon, plate. The flashcards that I will give my students will have family and friends vocabulary in their language on one side and English interpretation on the other side of the card (Kerns and Mendelson 2004). Formation of English sentences and reading out loud in class are a few things I have a great experience in doing. There are however a few challenges in the execution of all the lesson plans. Examples of the challenges include getting books for the students since the institution does not have enough books about the vocabulary in question. We will write a custom essay sample on Lesson planning or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now Another problem involves convincing the students to stand in front of the class and express themselves (Kerns and Mendelson 2004). Over the years of my experience, I have realized that many students do not have confidence when it comes to expressing themselves in a new language. The students are embarrassed they might mess up, or they may not come up with correct sentence structures. It is easy to overcome the above challenges. The set book is on the internet at a small fee and then printed in ten copies for the students. It is cheaper to take this move instead of ordering other sets of the set book. There is also the option of reading the set book in soft cover. The move is however challenging as most of the students find difficulty in reading soft copy documents. A tutors encouragement can eliminate shyness of students. The tutor should not correct the student in front of his/her colleagues when they make a mistake (Kerns and Mendelson 2004). Ther e are however circumstances that do not allow a tutor to ignore the error. In such a circumstance, it is advisable for the teacher to correct the student in a polite way. Each and every activity is important for the learners and the aim of learning the process. There are students who are learning for the sole purpose of being able to interact with their peers. These students most valuable lessons should include verbal communication in English.

Thursday, May 7, 2020

The Organic Foods Selection Between Ten Projects - 1702 Words

INTRODUCTION This case-study exanimate the Organic Foods selection between ten projects, totaled â‚ ¬208 million. However, evidence suggest that the Organic sales have been static since 1990, the managers needed to introduce more new products to expand the market presence and boost the company sales. Although the Organic Food board of directors limited the capital budget from â‚ ¬ 80 million. The challenge of this case is the selection and allocation of the â€Å"scares† funds among those compelling projects. This paper will be divided in three section. The first section will be discussed about the possible threat of the hostile takeover. The second part will be discussed about the financial analysis of the projects the potential problems comes with it and it will consider the division of the projects in the aggregate project plan. Finally, the third part will provide recommendations of the projects to select to the Board of Directors, followed by some comments and implications in the conclusion section. HOSTILE TAKEOVER The potential threat of hostile takeover and the importance of 1993 for Organic Foods A hostile takeover is a situation in purchase and sale transaction which take place against the will of the board of directors of a purchased company (Puziak and Martyniuk, 2012). In Organic Foods, the sales have been static since 1990, the management attribute this to the low population growth in northern Europe and market saturation in other areas.Show MoreRelatedTRUST AND INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS AND IDENTIFYING ISSUES Essay examples1466 Words   |  6 Pagestheir trustworthiness. Team project performance is directly impacted by team member’s interpersonal relationships. Collaboration and project success are effected by working relationships between team members which are believed to be trust based. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Informed Consent Free Essays

Ethics Paper Informed Consent in Industrial/Psychological Research July 31, 2011 Foundations of Industrial/Organizational Psychology Abstract There are certain conditions where reasonable exceptions that APA ethical standards and federal guidelines insure in research that human participation will be ethical due to informed consent. In federal guidelines the preferred mechanism is informed consent in order to protect the human participants (APA, 1992). Informed Consent Informed consent is when an individual gives permission to participate in future events after receiving instruction about the events they may wish to be a part of. We will write a custom essay sample on Informed Consent or any similar topic only for you Order Now Informed consent is put in place to prevent lawsuits. Obtaining consent is similar in all circumstances (Jones, 2011). In order to be considered valid, informed consent must be given voluntarily from a participant that is competent (Cherry, 2011). When is Informed Consent Required? In order to arrive at a better understanding of the subject matter, research is necessary. When conducting research and using human participants, the need to know whether informed consent is necessary is vital. To err on the side of safety, always obtain informed consent in any research situation if you have any doubts as to the necessity (Cherry, 2011). Require and acquire informed consent if: 1). Participants answer questions in their native language. Determine what data is needed, true/false or multiple choice questions, or surveys and whether or not this material can provide needed data. 2). When using a small group of participants, but determine ahead of time how many participants you will need. 3). When using identifying information or questions answered regarding sensitive or controversial language from your participants, also make the decision whether you can allow the participants to remain anonymous (Cherry, 2011). Exceptions to Informed Consent There are very limited conditions where both the APA and federal guidelines allow exceptions to informed consent. The APA is less explicit to the necessary conditions for exceptions, where the federal guidelines are very explicit. Examples are as follows: There has to be minimal risk involved in the research, the welfare of the participants’ rights are not affected by either altering or waiving informed consent, without the waiver, the research cannot be practically carried out, or having participated, upon completion of the research, the participants can be informed. These are the only exceptions the federal guidelines allow to informed consent (45 CFR Part 46, 1991). In I/O Psychology, field studies allow for exceptions to informed consent that sometimes meet these conditions. On occasion, there is data collection that serves both science and practice that is collected from employees. An example would be recording a telephone conversation at the local phone company where customer service employees and customers are monitored for coaching related to employee relations and/or performance. The customer and employee are informed of the conversation being recorded. If the data was going to be used in a study such as persuasion or negotiation, by the researcher, or as a study, both the customer and the employee would have to be informed of the purpose of the research prior to the recording and a consent needed to participate or the need of an acceptable exception to informed consent would apply (Ilgen Bell, 2001). There have been a number of conditions that continue to cause or raise concern regarding the researchers’ ability to rationalize exceptions to informed consent, this being in spite of I/O Psychological research being carried out in ways that protect the research participants’ well-being without the use of informed consent, one being a shift in the oversight of the ethical treatment of research participants. Once upon a time, (IRBs) or Institutional Review Boards were established at organizations and were involved in the conduct and research protocols, for human participant treatment. IRB members were gathered from outside and inside the organization to represent the expectations and values of communities. Board members values of the treatment of human participants in research and also by the ethical standards that were affiliated by the professional associations of the ethical standards (IRB, 1997). Control over what is and what is not reasonable treatment of human participants, today, still exists in IRBs and the ethical standards of scientific associations, such as the APA. An example is authors submitting their work to psychological journals such as Psychological Science, are instructed to inform the public that, â€Å"Investigations on human participants must include a statement indicating that informed consent was obtained†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Psychological Science, 1999). Informed consent is required; there is no option for exceptions (APA, 1992). Conclusion When obtained from the participant or participants’ legally authorized representative, documented in a consistent manner with the Health and Human Services protection of human participants regulations, and with applicable laws of the jurisdiction in which the research is conducted, informed consent is considered legally effective. In other words, the regulations ensure that an investigator should seek consent only under circumstances that provide the participant or a representative that is legally authorized the sufficient opportunity to consider if they are willing to participate and minimizes the possibility of undue influence or coercion. The information should be presented in a manner that is understandable to the participant or legal representative. Exculpatory language is not to be included whether written or oral with informed consent requirements in the regulations and are not intended to override any applicable local, state, or federal laws that require additional information to be legally effective for consent (45 CFR 46. 116(e), 1991). References American Psychological Association. Committee for the Protection of Human Participants in Research. 1992). Ethical Principles. American Psychologist, 47. Cherry, K. (2011). What is Informed Consent? Retrieved from http://psychology. about. com/od/iindex/g/def_informedcon. htm on July 31, 2011. Federal Register. (1991). Protection of human subjects: Title 45, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 46, Vol. 56 Number 28003. June 18. Federal Register (1997). Protection of human subjects: Suggested revisions to the Institutional Review Board (IRB) expedited review list. Vol. 62. Number 217. 60607, November 10, pp. 1-8 Ilgen, D. R. Bell, B. S. (2001). Conducting Industrial and Organizational Psychological Research: Institutional Review of Research in Work Organizations. Ethics and Behavior, 11, 395-412. Jones, A. (2011). How to obtain consent. Retrieved from www. ehow. com/how_7789509_obtain_informed-consent. html on July 31, 2011. Psychological Sciences. (1999). Information for contributors, 10, inside back cover of each issue. How to cite Informed Consent, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

The Crucible by Arthur Miller

Table of Contents Introduction What issues are being adressed How the issues are handled Conclusion Works Cited Introduction The crucible is a play written in the McCarthyism era by Arthur Miller. McCarthyism was a movement in the nineteen-fifties led by Senator Joe McCarthy in search for communists in the government of the United States. A crucible as defined is a vessel whereby heating and melting of metal using high temperatures take place for sole purposes of casting.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Crucible by Arthur Miller specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Metaphorically, a crucible can also refer to an era in history where the society seems to be melted down and remolded into a new castby the forces of great cultural, social, and political changes. The same word has remarkable similarities with crucifixion, which is the major intention of Miller by choosing it to be the title of his play. The plays interweaves Christ’s crucifixion with the picture of a bubbling crucible in it a man and a society: the predicament of arriving to the right choice of morality and the inevitability of attaining redemption through sacrifice. These two themes, certainly, occur in the amplified struggle between good and evil. The crucible puts to lime light countless enduring issue that affects our society at large. These issues include honor and integrity, power issues and its abounding corruption, the characteristics of excellence and wickedness, and the likelihood to evade all sorts of problems by creation of scapegoats. This paper aims at showing how the crucible exposes the above named issues in a dramatic fashion. What issues are being adressed The issues of honor and integrity are depicted very well in the Crucible. Conscience is an inward sense of decency which propels most people towards what we term as being right(Miller 1). Nevertheless, in moment of public discord, we end up give ou r consciousness the rear seat which is naturally expected of us. For one to stand up for the right thing even in the most challenging opposition, it asks for a strong will of conscience(Miller 2). Although taking such an action is perceived as noble and honorable in retrospection, it is rarely received well by the majority in real and actual events. Miller handles the issue of integrity and honor by bring the character of proctor. How the issues are handled The reason as to why proctor was hanged, it was because he chose to uphold his integrity at the end. If proctor had chosen to compromise his integrity by confessing thus lying, he would not have been blamed by the audience. Proctor realized that by compromising he would betray his close friends therefore he chose to sacrifice his life for his conscience.Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More By following his conscience, and sacrific ing his life, proctor became a real martyr before the audience eyes (Miller 3). This trend repeats itself even in our day to day life. We are very quick at applauding those who chose to uphold their integrity but we do not have enough strength of moral fiber to do so. The death of proctor turns out to be a moral exclamation point, and the modern audiences would be affected profoundly(Archer 5). A large part of the play is dominated by the issues of power. Domineering criminals in the play have power possession and this prompt Miller to sound a warning on the corrupting qualities behind power. This is depicted clearly when Abigail and the other group of girls after realizing that they posses great power, they seek to use it for their own benefits. Danforth possessesthe greatest power in the play, and he had the capacity to declare the proceedings at any one given time for the irrationality they were in (Archer 7). However, even at the final point when his actions were plainly and cle arly not upright he preferred to proceed with his judgment. The crucible playdisplayed how excess power is harmful and dangerous, since the temptation is ready waiting to be abused. The individuals in power in Salem, when scrutinized under theocratic government justification are found to absolutely abuse power, and in process destroying innocent people. This gives a clear illustration of how the law is not always correct, and if that is the case, we are supposed to stand up to it(Bly 2). Proctor did exactly that by challenging the court. Power does not usually land on the principled or the prudent, but rather in the control of self centered individuals. Today In our very democratic governments, the authorities are responsible to the entire society for the things they decide to do, and therefore, are under control to a given degree. From the play, we can see clearly that a position assuming excess power and having no oneto be responsible to tends to be corrupted by that power. It has always been noted that,numerous societies come up with some sort of scapegoat for any atrocity that they face. At that particular time,Salem was notan exception (Bly 5). At that period, the population was becoming uncomfortable with the extreme measures taken by the government to ascertain that they never deviated, and this caused general crisis. Danforth desire to control this crisis could have led him to execute the condemned ‘witches’ to a point far beyond any comprehension of therational mind would know that the actions were not right(Miller 2).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Crucible by Arthur Miller specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Danforth might have desired to show the population how rebels like Proctor were punished and the execution through hangings could have acted as warning to anyone planning to carry out a social upheaval. As a matter of fact, the devil has always served as a ver y easy scapegoat. Thebehavior to always find a scapegoats goes on even today, and there is always someone who takes the blame on our behalf. Conclusion Much had to be offered to the audience by the play Crucible in 1996. The issues addressed by the play are very much similar to the issues facing our modern world. There is much the modern audience canidentify with the issue of corruption and power, integrity and honor,the issue of rule governing the society and the methods used to condemn those people who deviate from the rulestogether with our burning desires to blame others by creating a scapegoat. Important issues to the Americans were addressed by the Crucible. The crucible exposed what the world in general is facing in real sense, people in power are manipulating powers bestowed on them to control other people and impose ideologies which are not sensible. Hunger for power and control have led to people committing crimes against humanity. Also, the inability of people to withhold their integrity has caused innocent people to suffer in the place of those guilty for committing an atrocity. People in power hide under the shadow of authority to oppress the weak and vulnerable. The crucible has played a very important role in addressing what is actually happening in the world. Works Cited Archer. The Crucible: Theme. Web. Bly, William.Arthur Miller’s The Crucible. USA: Barron’s Educational Series, 1984.   Bradford, Wade. The Crucible – A Challenging Masterpiece. 21 October 2011.Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Miller, Arthur. The Crucible. AC Black, 2010. This essay on The Crucible by Arthur Miller was written and submitted by user Jedidiah Rivas to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

7 Top Tips for Picking a Dissertation Title - Proofed

7 Top Tips for Picking a Dissertation Title - Proofed 7 Top Tips for Picking a Dissertation Title You only get once chance to make a first impression, so when writing a dissertation it helps if you pick a good title. And while the title of your paper won’t determine whether you pass or fail, the information you provide therein can make your work easier to follow for the reader. To make sure you set out on the right foot, the title of your dissertation should be clear and informative. It helps to think about what you want your reader to know from the moment they pick up your work (unlike a good novel, your dissertation doesn’t need a twist ending). So here are a few things to consider when picking a title for your dissertation. 1. What Is Your Research About? The most vital thing that any dissertation title can do is communicate the topic and focus of your research. This includes the general area you’re researching and the specific aspect of this being investigated. So in a dissertation called â€Å"Barriers to Using Social Media in Marketing a Luxury Fashion Brand,† the topic would be the marketing of luxury fashion brands and the focus would be the factors preventing the use of social media. 2. Your Research Approach The research approach you choose has a major impact on the results you achieve and it can help to include this in your title. For example, if you have conducted a large-scale survey of management strategy, you might pick a title such as â€Å"Management Strategy: A Quantitative Study of Current Practice.† 3. The Outcomes of Your Research The more specific the better, especially when it comes to the results of your research. Rather than calling your dissertation â€Å"Factors Influencing Recovery from Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries,† it makes sense to specify the kind of factors being investigated. Are they success factors? Factors which impede recovery? Stating this in the title means your reader will know immediately. If you include the information above, your dissertation title will be on the right track. But to get things perfect you should also keep the following tips in mind: 4. Clarity Seeking a second opinion can be helpful, so try asking a friend or professor to check your title for clarity. It is also advisable to avoid acronyms in titles for this reason. 5. Focus Overly long titles can be confusing or off-putting. Regardless of how good the work is, for instance, only the most dedicated are going to want to read a paper called â€Å"In silico exploration of the fructose-6-phosphate phosphorylation step in glycolysis: genomic evidence of the coexistence of an atypical ATP-dependent along with a PPi-dependent phosphofructokinase in Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii.† 6. Format Check your college’s style guide for how to format your title, as different institutions have different requirements when it comes to factors like capitalization. 7. Uniqueness and Humor Generally it is good if your title makes your dissertation stand out. It is also tempting to use a humorous title, though this is best saved for when writing for a popular audience. Neither uniqueness nor humor, however, should come at the expense of clarity and communicating important details about your work. Hopefully these tips will have helped you come to a decision over your dissertation title. But if not, then our expert proofreaders here at Proofed can let you know of any issues to do with clarity or accuracy in the title and headings of your dissertation, as well as providing a variety of services to ensure the quality of your work.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Green Algae (Chlorophyta)

Green Algae (Chlorophyta) Chlorophyta are commonly known as green algae and sometimes, loosely, as seaweed. They grow primarily in freshwater and saltwater, although some are found on land. They may be unicellular (one cell), multicellular (many cells), colonial (a loose aggregation of cells), or coenocytic (one large cell). Chlorophyta convert sunlight to starch that is stored in cells as a food reserve. Green Algae Characteristics Green algae have dark- to light-green coloration that comes from having chlorophyll a and b, which they have in the same amounts as higher plants- the plants, including seed plants and ferns,  that have  well-developed vascular tissues that transport organic nutrients. Their color is determined by the amounts of other pigmentation, including beta-carotene (yellow) and xanthophylls (yellowish or brownish). Like higher plants, they store their food mainly as starch, with some as fats or oils. In fact, green algae might have been the progenitors of the higher green plants, but that is the subject of debate. Chlorophyta belong to the kingdom Plantae. Originally, Chlorophyta referred to a division within the Plantae kingdom comprising all green algae species. Later, green algae species living predominantly in seawater were classified as chlorophytes (i.e., belonging to Chlorophyta), while green algae species thriving mainly in freshwater were classified as  charophytes  (i.e., belonging to  Charophyta). The AlgaeBase database lists about 4,500 species of  Chlorophyta, including 550 species of Trebouxiophyceae  (mostly on land and in freshwater), 2,500 species of Chlorophyceae  (mostly freshwater), 800 species of Bryopsidophyceae (seaweeds), 50 species of Dasycladophyceae  (seaweeds), 400  species of Siphoncladophyceae (seaweeds), and 250 marine Ulvophyceae (seaweeds). Charophyta include 3,500 species allocated to five classes. Habitat and Distribution of Green Algae The habitat of green algae is diverse, ranging from the ocean to freshwater. Rarely, green algae can also be found on land, largely on rocks and trees, with some appearing on the surface of snow. They are common in areas where light is abundant, such as shallow water and tide pools, and less common in the ocean than brown and red algae, but they can be found in freshwater areas. Invasive Species Some members of Chlorophyta are invasive species. Cladophora glomerata bloomed in Lake Erie in the 1960s because of phosphate pollution. The rotting algae washed up on beaches and produced an odor so foul that it discouraged the public from enjoying the lakes. It became so offensive in sight and smell that it was confused for raw sewage. Two other species, Codium (also known as dead mans fingers) and Caulerpa, threaten native plant life in coastal California, Australia, the Atlantic Coast, and the Mediterranean Sea. One invasive species, Caulerpa taxifolia, has been introduced into nonnative environments because of its popularity in aquariums. Green Algae as Animal and Human Food and Medicine Like other algae, green algae serve as an important food source for herbivorous marine life, such as fish, crustaceans, and gastropods, including sea snails. Humans use green algae as food, too. and it has long been part of the cuisine of Japan. There are more than 30 species of edible seaweed, which is naturally rich in minerals such as calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorous, potassium, selenium, vanadium, and zinc. Edible types of green algae include sea lettuce, sea palm, and sea grapes. The pigment beta carotene, found in green algae, is used as a food coloring. Carotene also has been shown to be very effective in preventing some cancers, including lung cancer. Researchers announced in January 2009 that green algae could play a role in reducing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. As sea ice melts, iron is introduced to the ocean. This fuels the growth of algae, which can absorb carbon dioxide and trap it near the ocean floor. With more glaciers melting, this could reduce the ​effects of global warming. Other factors, however, can reduce this benefit; if the algae are  eaten, the carbon can be released back into the environment.​​​​ Fast Facts Here are some quick facts about green algae: Green algae are also referred to as Chlorophyta and, sometimes, seaweed.They convert sunlight to starch that is stored as a food reserve.Green algaes color comes from having chlorophyll.Green algaes habitat ranges from the ocean to freshwater and sometimes to land.They can be invasive, with some species fouling beaches.Green algae are food for sea animals and humans.Green algae are used in cancer treatment.They could help reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Sources: